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    Aerosol cultivation

    来源:本站  最后更新:2017-06-08 11:26:14  作者:中农天陆  浏览:616次

    1, the basic principles of aerosol cultivation
      Aerosol cultivation, also known as aerial spray or spray training (AeropoIlics), is a new soilless cultivation technology. It is the root of the crop hanging in the closed, opaque container (tank, box or bed), the nutrient solution through the special equipment to form mist, intermittently sprayed on the crop roots to provide crop moisture and nutrients needed Of the cultivation techniques, fog culture and water as the medium for the supply of water and fertilizer plants for ordinary water culture is more obvious differences, the roots directly exposed to the atomization of nutrients in the air is no mechanical resistance in the case of growth, with sufficient Of oxygen and free stretch of space can effectively solve the common water culture in the oxygen supply, for the contradiction between the fat, with a fast nutrient supply, nutrient and high water use efficiency. Therefore, with the soil cultivation and ordinary water culture is not the yield and quality advantages, is recognized as a most advanced soilless cultivation model, in line with the future direction of the development of agricultural production. At present, the fog culture technology has been applied in the production of vegetables and medicinal plants.

     

     

    2, the composition of aerosol cultivation Aerosol cultivation mainly by the cultivation system, nutrient solution supply system, computer automatic control system composed of three parts.
      (1) cultivation system cultivation system in accordance with the cultivation of different beds can be divided into A type, column, half mist culture 3 types.
      A.A type of mist culture is developed by the University of Arizona. A-shaped cultivation frame is a typical structure of fog culture, the crop grows on the side of the cultivation plate, the root vertical hanging in the A-type container inside, intermittently bathed in the atomized nutrient solution. This cultivation method can significantly increase the number of units per unit area and yield, comparable to the traditional flat cultivation increased by 2.3 times. Suitable for small space occasions, such as spacecraft and so on. This type of fog is used to grow short leafy crops such as lettuce, celery, etc .; if planting large crops such as tomatoes, you need to hanger cultivation.
      B. Column-type fog culture was originally developed by researchers at the University of Pisa in Italy. The crop is planted in the vertical column container around the root growth in the container, the top of the column with a spray device, the atomized nutrient solution sprayed to the roots, the excess nutrient solution through the bottom of the column drainage tube recovery, use. Column-type fog culture, can make full use of the building surface and greenhouse three-dimensional light and heat resources, to achieve the effective use of three-dimensional space, suitable for planting leafy vegetables, small fruits and vegetables and ornamental plants such as lettuce, parsley, strawberry, Morning cork, broccoli and other horticultural crops.
      C. Semi-mist culture technology was originally designed by Japanese scholars. The roots of the crop are grown in the air for most or most of the time, and the nutrient solution is sprayed into the cultivation bed in the form of a spray. When the spray volume is large, the root system is immersed in the nutrient solution in whole or in part. After stopping the spraying, the nutrient solution in the cultivated bed is discharged from the bottom drain pipe at a certain speed, and the root is re-exposed to the air. This model can effectively solve the contradiction between water supply and oxygen supply, while saving energy consumption, suitable for a variety of vegetables, flowers, the widest range of applications.
      (2) nutrient solution supply system Nutrient solution supply system mainly includes storage tanks, pipelines, spray devices, pumps and nutrient solution preparation, management. The nutrient solution in the reservoir is supplied to the cultivation bed through the water pump, and then returned to the storage tank through the return pipe to realize the circulation of the nutrient solution. The pump power is sized according to the production area and the pressure required for the nozzle. Among them, the preparation and management of nutrient solution, such as nutrient solution formula, concentration (EC), pH (pH), liquid temperature is the key to determine the effect of aerosol cultivation. In addition, in the actual production, it is necessary to combine the types of cultivated crops, local specific conditions and cultivation experience to select the appropriate nutrient solution formula and concentration, and by adjusting the types of various nutrient elements And the proportion of vegetables to achieve the purpose of quality control.
      (3) computer automatic control system computer system by the sensor, computing center, the implementation of components, to achieve the aerosol cultivation system nutrient solution, external environment, rhizosphere environment, automatic control. The sensor collects the external parameters of the environment, nutrient solution and rhizosphere environment, such as the EC value, pH value, liquid temperature, temperature and humidity of the rhizosphere environment, and then the computer according to the expert system or plant growth mode to determine the operation, And open the relevant implementation of components to control, such as nutrient solution EC value is too low, it automatically add the mother liquor, too high into the water. Due to crop water demand, fertilizer by the light, temperature, humidity and other environmental factors, crop varieties and crop growth stage of the impact. Therefore, the supply and intermittent time should be based on the season, weather, crop nutrient demand situation in a timely manner to adjust the frequency and intermittent time. For example, when the outside temperature rises, the spray frequency increases; when the temperature decreases, the intermittent time is prolonged. If it is semi-spray training, the intermittent time for the liquid can also be extended, and the liquid supply time can be shorter.

     

     

    3, aerosol cultivation characteristics and application of aerosol cultivation as a contemporary agricultural high-tech, with unique advantages and broad development potential. But there are also some shortcomings and deficiencies. Only the correct evaluation of aerosol cultivation techniques, fully aware of its advantages and problems in order to accurately grasp the scope and value of its application, strengths and weaknesses, in production to play its advantages.
      (1) the advantages of aerosol cultivation:
    The cultivation of aerosols is a cultivation technique of plant nutrition, plant physiology, environmental ecology, agricultural automation and horticultural crops cultivation, which opens up a new way for agricultural production. In the production of aerosol can be fully in accordance with the requirements of cultivators for agricultural production, without the impact of the season, the geographical environment, so that the annual production, the annual supply, more access to high yield, high quality and good production results. The advantages of aerosol cultivation are mainly reflected in the following aspects:
      1) can effectively avoid the crop continuous cropping In the traditional soil cultivation, especially under the cultivation of facilities, due to crop intercropping lead to soil soil pests and diseases occur, salt accumulation, nutrient imbalance has become a difficult problem in agricultural sustainable production. And aerosol cultivation can fundamentally solve the problem of soil continuous cropping obstacles, the same facilities can be repeated on the anniversary of planting the same crop. If after a long period of cultivation, the use of nutrient solution, due to excessive accumulation of some harmful substances and physical barriers, only need to replace the nutrient solution can be.
      2) Solve the problem of root hypoxia in hydroponic culture In the common water culture nutrient solution, the dissolved oxygen concentration is low and the root oxygen consumption is fast. In the matrix cultivation, the root oxygen supply is often deteriorated due to the formation of the root pad, The occurrence of hypoxia rot, serious inhibition of the growth of vegetable crops, limiting yield and quality improvement. Fog culture environment is completely different from the soil cultivation, common hydroponics, root growth in the relative humidity of 100% of the air, the root of each part can be directly from the root domain space intake. Rhizosphere oxygen-enriched environment, for the root respiration metabolism to provide adequate O2, making the plant a variety of metabolic function to strengthen the oxygen free radical content greatly reduced. At the same time, the spacious root domain space of the ventilated and ventilated also reduces the accumulation of rhizosphere CO2. On the basis of the use of additional energy, aerosol cultivation is a good solution to the contradiction between the root supply and oxygen supply, and provides an optimized rhizosphere environment for crop growth.
      3) has the advantages of fast growing, high yield and good quality
      4) aerosol cultivation has excellent water, fertilizer, gas conditions, coupled with greenhouse environmental control, give full play to the crop production potential, crop growth speed, strong growth, high yield. The study found that cattle bovine cultivation for six months is equivalent to 2 years of soil cultivation biomass, Echinacea cultivation 4 months is equivalent to a year of soil cultivation harvest. Application of aerosol production of potato micro-potato, the general increase in the rate of more than 30%, and some even reached 100%, yield effect is very significant. Compared with soil cultivation, the yield per plant of fog culture tomato increased by 15.3%, and the yield per plant was 100-200 kg. Moreover, the effective control of the nutrients through the nutrient solution can significantly improve the content of beneficial ingredients in vegetables, the output of vegetables clean, beautiful, safe, pollution-free, suitable for raw or cold, for the banquet dishes to provide both beautiful and nutritious Grade products, to meet the large cities in the high-level hotels, restaurants, special nursing homes and other needs.
      5) the use of water and nutrient efficiency in the traditional soil cultivation, the average utilization of fertilizers only 30% -40%; and aerosol cultivation can be based on and loss and other issues, therefore, nutrient use efficiency can be increased to 90% 95%. Moreover, the fog or ultrasonic atomization of the nutrient solution supply, making the root contact with the nutrient solution surface area is much larger than other cultivation mode. In addition, the developed gas-borne roots and large number of roots, greatly improving the efficiency of root nutrient absorption and utilization, and promote the rapid growth of crops. In addition, the nutrient solution recycling, not only saves resources, but also reduces production costs.
      6) to improve land use efficiency and expand agricultural production space
      7) aerosol cultivation to get rid of the soil constraints, greatly expanding the agricultural production space, such as barren hills, islands, deserts and rivers, lakes and oceans on the "floating land", and even space spacecraft can be used aerial For crop production. Especially in densely populated cities, can use the roof, balcony and other space cultivation of vegetables, improve the supply and survival of fresh vegetables environment. In addition, the use of A-type and column-type fog in the greenhouse, the development of multi-storey three-dimensional cultivation, can improve the land use and per unit area of ​​production, which is to make up for China's agricultural land in the field of micro-nano-bubble water Technology Co., Ltd. 297 insufficient The most effective way out.
      8) Modernization of agricultural production is easy to achieve the cultivation of aerosols eliminates the field of various farming and weeding, easy to achieve nutrient management of automation, according to the will of the people to produce crops, is a controlled environment of modern agricultural production , And with the use of computers and intelligent systems, a substantial increase in labor efficiency, more conducive to promoting agricultural production to industrialization and modernization. However, aerosol cultivation is also the development of agricultural science and technology to a certain degree of product, which has many advantages, but also there are some problems. Only to fully understand its shortcomings, and seek a proper solution in order to give full play to its technological advantages.
      (2) the limitations of aerosol cultivation:
      1) One-time investment, equipment, high reliability requirements Compared with soil cultivation, aerosol cultivation requires more facilities and equipment, operating costs higher. In China's current ordinary farmers in the economic income and consumption levels, it is difficult to support the pre-investment and operating costs. This is also the current, aerosol cultivation has not yet been used for large-scale production, and most of them as a sightseeing agriculture and display of modern agriculture, one of the reasons for planting. Therefore, the development of some energy-saving, low-consumption form of aerosol cultivation, reduce investment costs and operating costs, to accelerate the development of aerosol cultivation technology in China's development is of great significance.
      2) Rhizosphere environment is not very stable In the aerosol cultivation system, the root of the crop grows in the air filled with atomized nutrients, the root growth environment such as nutrient concentration and composition, temperature and humidity and so easy to produce a more substantial change, And the rhizosphere environment of the buffer than the soil, ordinary water training poor. Rhizosphere environment instability will directly affect the crop growth and yield formation. Therefore, according to the type of crop selection of stable nutrient solution formula, the appropriate nutrient composition, to maintain a relatively stable rhizosphere environment is the basic requirements of all aerosol cultivation mode.
      3) the requirements of management technology High aerosol cultivation need to be based on crop types and growth season selection of appropriate nutrient solution formula, the preparation of nutrient solution, and nutrition EC, pH management and crop growth environment of the temperature, humidity, gas , Light to carry out the necessary regulation, which is more difficult for the general producers to master, not easy to popularize. Therefore, to reduce the difficulty of aerosol cultivation technology, the development of some simple control method is the urgent problem to be solved.

     

     

    (3) the application of aerosol cultivation
      Although the application of aerosol cultivation technology in China is relatively late, but the development is very rapid, showing a broad development prospects and great potential for the application. Mainly in the following areas:
      1) As a tool for root morphological and physiology research, the morphological and physiological characteristics of the roots are closely related to the absorption and utilization of nutrients by plants, and the response to stress is closely related. Therefore, the study of root biology is considered to clarify the mechanism of plant nutrient uptake and improve Plant Breeding Resistance to Nutritional Stress. However, under the condition of traditional soil cultivation, there are some difficulties in sampling, measurement and observation because of the growth of root system, and it is destructive and heavy workload. There is still a lack of suitable research methods, which seriously hinders the research of root biology progress. The aerosol cultivation technique can provide the growth environment without loss of integrity of the root system. It is beneficial to observe the growth and development of the root system and adapt to the dynamic changes of the stress, and it is widely used in the morphological and physiological roots of rice and other crops And the migration and transport of mineral nutrients in the environment.
      2) to achieve an effective way to achieve industrial production of vegetables fog of all aspects of easy control, the operation process is simple, in the sowing only seeds into the sponge block or other inorganic matrix, directly into the planting hole can be, Harvesting can be root harvest, but also from the base cut, can effectively avoid the soil cultivation of heavy soil, the whole plot, weeding and other labor processes, and the application of computer systems to achieve mechanization and automation management, greatly reducing the labor intensity, The labor force, improve labor productivity. If the soil planting vegetables, each labor force can manage about 1.2 acres of land, aerosol cultivation is generally able to manage 3-4 acres of land. The annual production of the crop can be increased by more than 25%, which has been applied to the efficient production of anti-season vegetable cultivation, especially green leafy vegetables, and in some crops such as tomato and potato, etc., As well as high-grade flowers in the production of industrial applications, significant economic benefits. Especially for plants such as ginseng, beef cattle, Echinacea purpurea, ginger, yew, tomorrow leaves, clover, licorice and so on to root as the main medicinal organs, has obvious potential for commercial development.
      3) Balcony and courtyard agriculture suitable for urban living and office buildings Because of the scale and flexibility of fog culture, in densely populated metropolitan areas, aerial fog cultivation techniques can be used to make full use of roof, balcony and garden space Planting crops not only improve the living environment, but also beautify the city landscape. Singapore has cultivated aerosols as a key cultivation model for urban greening and agricultural development. The use of vertical expansion of cultivated space to increase productivity per unit area is not only the most direct and effective way to alleviate the pressure of food support systems in urban population growth, Is a green and beautify the city, an effective means to reduce environmental pollution. At present, the design of small miniature fog culture system has gradually entered the developed country room, courtyard, the future is expected to become beautiful and practical in one of the main mode of family leisure agriculture.
      4) Effective means of improving land use efficiency in pollution, degradation and land use. Fogging is a method in which crops are cultivated in a relatively closed system by means of spraying, recovering and re-spraying nutrient solutions to effectively reduce the atmospheric evaporation of moisture The water consumption is only about 1/4 ~ 1/10 of the soil cultivation, the water saving efficiency is as high as 90%, and the soil pollution and degradation are limited to the traditional cultivation methods, which is suitable for the poor water resources, Or even unfamiliar cultivation of crops in the environment. Such as some of the island, beach, waste mining area, desert, polluted areas and other traditional agriculture can not cultivate the poor soil environment, can be used to cultivate vegetable fog cultivation, greatly expanding the available space for agricultural production and improve land productivity. At present, Italy, Spain, Israel and the Arab countries, especially the Americas have been in some areas to promote the use of fog culture technology. For example, in the United States on the coast of Gulia, 50% of the greenhouse due to long-term extensive use of chemical fertilizers, causing serious degradation of the soil was abandoned, at present, these areas are using fog culture re-planting vegetables. In the tropical high-humidity pest and disease high incidence area, the use of aerosol culture technology can effectively reduce the occurrence of pests and diseases, reduce the use of pesticides. Fog culture is also a fast and simple production system and model, can be used as a voyage or remote adventure to achieve fresh vegetables and fruits of an effective way.
      5) to provide technical support for the space life support system With the development of space industry and human needs of space, in space using soilless cultivation of green plants to produce food can be said to be the most effective way. NASA has carried out extensive research and application on the cultivation of aerosols in micro-gravity environment, and has successfully cultivated some vegetable crops.
      With the further improvement of aerosol culture technology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, flower production and development into a new stage of development, is expected to become in the earth, and even anywhere in the universe can be crop production.

     

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